KumiswaImfundo yesibili nezikole

Ukusetshenziswa kwezomnotho esisempumalanga yoMfula ob. Incazelo kanye kwebalingisi of ukusakaza aqueous

Izimpawu emfuleni ob, unikezwa ezincwadini futhi izincwadi eziningi, kusikisela ukuthi umthombo wamanzi kuyinto confluence we Biya futhi Katun, esemgwaqweni ku-Altai. Nakuba abanye hydrologists, kusukela nenye idatha baphikisa ngokuthi ukugeleza kwamanzi iqala endaweni ehlukile. ubude bayo - 3.650 km. Uma sithatha ku-akhawunti futhi eMfuleni Irtysh (main owumthelela ob), khona-ke ndawonye zinjalo zonke nomfula omude kunayo the Russian Federation, futhi cishe wamanzi Eshiya (indawo yesibili) ngobukhulu. Ubude wabo 5410 km. Akungatshazwa ukuthi umlomo Sea Kara, e confluence nge Gulf okuyinto akha eside 800 amakhilomitha, eyaziwa ngokuthi i- "eGulf of OB."

Incazelo emfushane

Ob has a pair of egoba usayizi ngobukhulu okuyinto akhiwa empambana we-Altai esifundeni. Umfula amumethe nemingenela. Sinenkosi lomfula uhambahamba, elula sandy nezigodi sasivumela ezibanzi. Ngenxa ukugeleza okusimeme kokubili nemingenela, futhi ukugeleza, ukubaluleka kwalesi emanzini esimweni ifinyelela esiphezulu.

Ukuze kwenziwe ngcono ukusetshenziswa kwezomnotho esisempumalanga yoMfula ob, idamu, isakhiwa, yakhiwa ngenxa lapho ukugeleza kwamanzi siphukile ngokuphelele.

ukudla

Ob emfuleni sidla eqhweni ukuncibilika. amanzi High engxenyeni engenhla futhi phakathi wamanzi iqala ngo-Ephreli, ezansi - ngoMeyi. Ngenxa ukumisa ezingeni amanzi ukwenyuka ukugeleza. Ngemva kokuvula isifinyelele uphawu ezibucayi futhi umfula udla izindwani. Nokho, lokhu akusho isikhathi eside.

Ngokuvamile iqala ehlobo isikhathi amafishane. Esikhathini sifinyelela engenhla kazamcolo ngoJulayi iphela ngo-September - izikhukhula. Ngamanye izingxenye emfuleni ngenxa yezimvula ezinamandla ezingeni amanzi okusezingeni eliphezulu ongama phambi nqabela-up.

geography

Ekuqaleni wamanzi ukuze ob emfuleni kushintsha njalo ageleza enyakatho ke uphendulela eningizimu. Ngenxa yokuthi ke has a amandla ezahlukene, ubunjalo enethiwekhi kumiswa mode, kukhona ukwahlukana yaba izingxenye ezintathu: i engenhla, eziphakathi nendawo.

Ukuze kuchazwe kahle ukugeleza endleleni, ikhadi liyadingeka eMfuleni ob. Kugeleza Altay, nesiteshi budlulela e Novosibirsk futhi saseTomsk esifundeni. It idlulisela Khanty-Mansiysk esifundeni, ogeleza udlule emadolobheni amaningana. Khona-ke uqala delta yawo emva kwebanga, okuyinto Itholakala Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. Ukugeza zasemizaneni eseduze, ukusakaza iya yenaba futhi agelezela oLwandle Kara.

Izimpawu emfuleni ob uthi eqinisweni iyingxenye Katun, okungukuthi ukuqhubeka yayo. Lokhu umfula umfula oyinhloko we-Altai Territory. Imikhumbi kwezinye izindawo.

Ukusetshenziswa kwezomnotho esisempumalanga yoMfula ob

Ngo-1961, edamini Yakhiwa wamanzi Novosibirsk esiteshini. Ngenxa wakhe, bakha ichibi (edume ngokuthi ob Sea), manje isetshenziselwa izidingo labantu. Ngesikhathi kwakhiwa idamu bebelokhu ugcwalise dolobhana futhi ingxenye Berdsk, emzini oseduze. wadala phezu kolwandle Manje ukuphumula izivakashi kanye bendawo; eyakhelwe usebe lwawo sanatoriums eziningi kanye nokungcebeleka izikhungo.

Ekhulwini XIX lenzeka OB-Yenisei Canal, lapho Iplani kwakungukuthi ukuhlanganisa Yenisei kanye ob. Nokho, okwamanje kuba akukho ukubaluleka kanye ngokuphelele.

Ob kanye Gulf yayo ob Bay abacebile izinhlanzi: 50 zama zihlala lapha. Ngenxa yokuthi ukusakaza aqueous has a lokuhlushwa enkulu imithi enobungozi nomoya-mpilo omncane, abanye abameleli izilwane zasemanzini afe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngenxa nokusetshenziswa oluyingozi emfuleni i yokuzalana kwabantu zezinhlanzi yehlile kakhulu. Nokho, amanzi agelezayo namanje yezindawo kangcono ukudoba.

Ukusetshenziswa kwezomnotho lomfula ob inquma isikhundla salo. Ngenxa yokuthi ke ageze phezu ingxenye enkulu WaseRussia, amanzi ezindaweni eziningi.

amaqiniso ezithakazelisayo

On ukugeleza kwamanzi akuyona kudala, ngonyaka ka-2008, kwaba khona isiphepho. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, kwenzekani njalo ku vortex asemkhathini endaweni emfuleni.

Ngo elinye lamadolobha, okuyinto amanga loMfula ob, yayakhiwe ngo-1930 ngu-engotsheni esiyingqayizivele "Mastodon". engavamile yayo itholakala indlela ukwakhiwa: kuyakhiwa akazange esetshenziswa izipikili. Nokho, ukugcina lesi sakhiwo kuze kube manje zehlulekile, it is kushiswe 90 zokuqala.

Ukusetshenziswa kwezomnotho lomfula ob lenyuka emva ukwakhiwa kwebhuloho kaMasipala. Lena ibhuloho ekhethekile ezimboziwe, okuletha ndawonye eziningi ezijwayelekile. Ubude bayo 2000 m, yingakho nguye ende kunazo zonke emhlabeni. Ebusika, ngenxa yesimo sezulu, okungukuthi eqinile lokushisa ekushintshashintsheni, ibhuloho kaMasipala kulinganiselwe encishisiwe ngobukhulu, ehlobo - liyakhuphuka. Ukuze lokhu kwenzeke e operation evamile, ifakwe ezinamasondo ukwesekwa ezivumela isakhiwo jika.

Phansi kuyinto wamanzi sandy cishe kuyo yonke indawo. Kuphela ngezinye izikhathi ungase bazithole bano basale dengwane. Lesi sici nobuntu ngengxenye phakathi ob Barnaul futhi Biysk. Lapho amanzi elifika tide uphawu, futhi ibhange kwesokudla ukungenwa izikhukhula. Isikhathi sesibili, lapho kukhona ukwanda ezinkulu ezingeni lamanzi liphuma ngo-June, lapho encibilika izinguzunga zeqhwa neqhwa ezintabeni. Break-up iqala ngo-November, kanye phezulu entwasahlobo ice ifinyelela 130 cm ukushuba.

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